Language, Dialect and Register_百度文库
What is the difference between dialect and register? define and explain As you can see, a dialect is not usually a completely different language. Depending on. In sociolinguistics a variety, also called a lect, is a specific form of a language or language cluster. This may include languages, dialects, registers, styles, or other forms of to refer to the different forms avoids the use of the term language, which many people associate only with the standard language, and the term dialect. Abstract. Sociolinguistics pays attention to the social aspects of human language. Sociolinguistics discusses the relationship between language and society.
Dialect, which refers to differences in syntax, morphologyand vocabulary as well as pronunciation, is the broader term. Standard language Most languages have a standard variety, some variety that is selected and promoted by either quasi-legal authorities or other social institutions, such as schools or media.
Standard varieties are more prestigious than other, nonstandard varieties and are generally thought of as "correct" by speakers of the language. Since the selection is an arbitrary standardstandard varieties are "correct" only in the sense that they are highly valued by large numbers of individuals of medium and higher socio-economic status, those with the power to control language use, such as writers, publishers, public speakers and the ruling class, within the society that uses the language.
As Ralph Harold Fasold puts it, "The standard language may not even be the best possible constellation of linguistic features available. It is general social acceptance that gives us a workable arbitrary standard, not any inherent superiority of the characteristics it specifies.
More often, though, standard varieties are understood only implicitly. Writing of Standard English, John Algeo suggests that the standard variety "is simply what English speakers agree to regard as good".
Register sociolinguistics and Style-shifting A register sometimes called a style is a variety of language used in a particular social setting. Unlike dialects, which are used by particular speech communities and associated with geographical settings or social groupings, registers are associated with particular situations, purposes, or levels of formality. Dialect and register may be thought of as different dimensions of variation.
Variety (linguistics) - Wikipedia
For example, Trudgill suggests the following sentence as an example of a nonstandard dialect that is used with the technical register of physical geography: Is there any evidence? B How is a society or speech community to be defined? C Is it really impossible to analyze "parole" in terms of rules or regularities? The study of the relation between language and dialect has been fundamental in provoking such questions among sociolinguists. What is the reality that underpins our ideas about language and dialect?
Are they emotive terms? For example, in the former Yugoslavia: In it there were 3 or 4 languages.
Language is linked to an ethnic group. Language or dialect is a political term. So there is a need for a neutral term in sociolinguistics Variety is "a set of linguistic items with similar social distributions" Hudson What is the most important in this definition is that variety is defined in terms of a specific set of linguistic items which we can uniquely associate with some external factors e.Language and Dialect
The concept of variety allows us to ask what basis there is for the traditional distinction between language and dialect. Sociolinguists prefer to use variety rather than dialect. According to Hudson, a language and dialects are varieties. For example, Standard English and New York speech are both varieties. Speech variety, or language variety, refers to any distinguishable form of speech used by a speaker or a group of speakers.
Linguistic features of a speech variety can be found at the lexical, the phonological, the morphological, or the syntactical level of the language. Variety is considered a more neutral term than terms such as standard or non-standard language and dialects. The search for "dialects" According to M. Halliday, a dialect is "just a sum of variants having a strong tendency to co-occur" A Dialects may be regional or social. New York speech Social dialect: A is an Irish and B is an Englishman.
How long are youse here? Speaker A looks puzzled. We came on Sunday. Ah, youse here a while then. Stress is on pronunciation, vocabulary not grammar.
Sociolinguists try to define regional dialects by drawing isoglosses—a line across a map which divides users of one variant from users of another. Contrasting variants where a series of isoglosses overlap significantly, then a dialect boundary can be drawn. Although geographical barriers are the major sources of regional variation of language, loyalty to one's native speech and physical and psychological resistance to change are among other reasons of such variations.
Nowadays, the stability of local dialects seems to be decreasing. C Nowadays, it is quite difficult to find linguistic items that have identical or similar isoglosses. Isoglosses tend to intersect rather than overlap. Most of Hudson's research was based on Europe and America.
dialect / register
D Validity of informants used in dialect surveys: Although people on the border think they are Dutch speakers or German speakers, they can understand each other better than they understand Dutch or German spoken by people who live far away from them. On the border, the languages merge into each other and the border language is a mixture of Dutch and German.
How are we to decide whether two varieties are instances of the same language? How are we to decide whether a variety is a dialect or a language? Criteria for judging two varieties: Popular understanding of the term, language, does not correspond to the criterion.
For example, in Scandinavia, is there one language or different languages?
Mutual intelligibility is a matter of degree, not an absolute measure, from complete understanding to less understanding.
Mutual intelligibility may lead to unforeseen and undesirable conclusions. Mutual intelligibility may be as much a matter of variant motivation as it is of the similarity or difference between two varieties. For example, standard Norwegians incline not to understand non-standard Norwegian but non-standard Norwegians incline to understand standard Norwegian.
B Sociolinguists too have to accept that linguistic criteria are of less importance than political and cultural factors in determining what a dialect is and what a language is. An autonomous variety is a language Heteronomy: A heteronomous variety is a dialect. It has to be stressed: A language is "a dialect with an army and a navy. In 18th century, London became centralized. As its importance grew, the south dialect began to have a great influence on others.
A A typical standard language will generally have passed through four processes. It usually grows out of a variety that has existed plus political power.